"Blubaugh Place" Farm Photo Index, Somerset County, PA

Michael Korns farm, Southampton Township, Somerset County, PA

Introduction
The photographs indexed below document the Southampton Township farm that is associated with the Somerset County, Pennsylvania pioneer Michael Korns, Senior as a result of its description in the 1949 book The Genealogy of Michael Korns, Sr. of Somerset County Pennsylvania ". Most of the house photographs on this web page were taken in July 1998, when the main part of the banked farm house was still standing, and in July & October 1999, after it had partially collapsed.

The farm, which is still under cultivation, is located in a section of Southampton Township that is still quite remote and isolated today. The buildings are located on the peak of a hill, and have an outstanding view of the surrounding countryside. For as long as I can remember, the farm has been known locally as the "Blubaugh place". While this farm was owned at one point by Michael Korns, recent research indicates that it is not part of the property from the Michael Korns estate that was sold to Jacob Cook in 1830. To see photos of the house that Michael Korns was possibly living in at the time of his death, click here. To see annotated 1939 aerial photos of the property that is illustrated on the 1829 estate map of Michael Korn, Sr., click here. To see a transcript of the 1830 deed that transferred tracts 1 & 2 to Jacob Cook, click here. To see analysis that proves this property was part of Michael Korn's 320 acre tract 2491 that was originally surveyed for Comley Randel, Click here.

General House Description
The house is a traditional banked two story timber-framed, central-hall plan farm house that is built on a cut-stone foundation. The house is located near, but not over, a spring. The banked style of farmhouses and barns, which became the predominant style in 19th century Somerset County, was a building tradition in eastern Pennsylvania, particularly in areas settled by Germans [1]. Michael Korn, like many others in the area, migrated from a more established eastern region, and he and his neighbors would have brought various skills, concepts, practices and traditions with them, including those related to building construction.

The east end of the house has an interior brick chimney that incorporates a first story fireplace, and a connection point for a sheet metal flue for a stove. The foundation support structure for fireplace in the basement is built of stone, and does not incorporate a basement fireplace, or an attachment point for a separate stove, for heavy/messy cooking tasks. The fireplace and lower portion of the chimney is built of primitive brick that has a distinctively homemade appearance. The bricks located above the roof had a white glaze on the outside, as did the chimneys on the nearby Daniel Korns, Jr. family home.

Fireplace may indicate early construction
The presence of a fireplace may be an indicator of an early construction date. For example, the nearby Daniel Korns, Jr. family home, which I judge to probably be built after 1835, based on its particular 6 panel door construction, does not have a fireplace, and must have relied on one or more stoves for heating and cooking. Stoves were already being used by Michael Korns, Sr, by the time of his death, as evidenced by the listing from his estate sale. The presence of a fireplace may suggest that stoves were not readily available at the place and time that the house was originally built.

Introduction to dating the house
I am not an expert on early American architecture, and I have long been a pessimist on the subject of whether or not this timber-frame house could have been built during Michael Korn's lifetime (e.g. 1824 or earlier). As I continue to learn more, it seems at least possible that it may have been built during his lifetime.

General background information on early local dwellings
The first houses in Somerset County were nearly all log structures [1]. For example, the 1798 direct tax schedule for Somerset County records a total of 1235 homes, but only two of them were built with timber frame construction [1]. While the area where the Michael Korns farm wasn't annexed into Somerset County until 1800, and was still a part of Bedford County in 1798, the 1798 Somerset County tax schedule gives us a general idea of the general scarcity of area frame houses at the end of the 18th century.

Log homes, and early Somerset County timber-frame houses, like my Grandfather Dietle's banked farmhouse in Larimer Township, did not have central hallway entries. Rather, One entered directly into a room from outdoors, then went through doorways from one room to another [1].

The Southampton Township census of 1820 documents 40 houses and 41 cabins, and by 1830 there were 47 houses. This suggests that there was at least a 50% chance that Michael Korns might have built something other than a cabin by the time of his 1824 death. I don't know if the 1820 census category for "houses" would have included log houses, or just timber-frame houses. Judging from his obvious well-to-do, entrepreneurial status at the time of his death, as determined from his estate records, Michael Korn would be an obvious candidate for having one of the nicer, more modern style of houses in the area; i.e. possibly this timber-framed house built on a central-hallway plan.

1802-dated snow birds on the roof of the house
One thing that I can state with certainty from personal knowledge is that there were numerous 1802-dated cast iron snow birds installed on the roof of the house. This is suggestive of the age of the house, but not proof positive, because the 1802-dated mold patterns could have been in service for many years.

Michael Korn had a house of some kind in Southampton Township by 1804
Another certainty is that Michael Korns definitely had a house of some kind in Southampton Township by early 1804, and was well-established there as a resident, because his house is specified as the local election site in a Pennsylvania statute that was approved on February 20, 1804.

A similar-appearing house in Brotherton is dated 1812-1815
Page 298 of the 1962 book "Two Centuries of Brothersvalley Church of the Brethren" shows a very similar-appearing house in the Brotherton area that is said to have been built circa 1812 (page 177) to 1815 by Jacob Schrock. If the circa 1812-1815 date of the Schrock house is indeed accurate, this would demonstrate that this style of house was already being built in Somerset County during Michael Korn's lifetime. Building a timber-framed house such as this was labor-intensive, and required a good bit of skill.

Michael's brother Jacob had a sawmill in Southampton Township by 1805
Another thing that I can say with certainty is that a sawmill was used to build this house. There were several local sawmills operating in Southampton Township by 1805; one belonged to Henry Imhoff, and the other belonging to Michael Korn's brother Jacob Korns (according to the 1932 book "The Somerset County Outline"). An 1805 Southampton Township tax list, given on page 578 of the 1884 " History of Bedford, Somerset and Fulton Counties Pennsylvania", lists Jacob Korn with a "mill and sawmill" and also lists Henry Imhoff, George "Kook" and Adam "Startz" has having sawmills. The same page also states "The first gristmill in Southampton township was built by Jacob Korns, where Wellersburg now is, about the year 1809.". At that early date, these sawmills would have had reciprocating blades, and would probably have been water powered. In any case, the presence of these local sawmills would have made the construction of this timber frame house at least theoretically possible during the time when Michael Korns was living in Southampton Township. Click here for photos of an old race for a water powered sawmill that was located near the Michael Korns, Sr. Homestead.

Jacob Korn left the area circa 1810-1817
It might be plausible to guess that Michael might have used lumber from his brother's sawmill to build a house. If so, that would suggest a construction date of 1817 or earlier, because Jacob Korn emmigrated to Ohio in the 1810 to 1817 time frame. Chapter XV of the 1949 book "The Genealogy of Michael Korns, Sr. of Somerset County Pennsylvania" states "Jacob Korns and wife Elizabeth, came to Holmes County, Ohio, in 1817, from the state of Maryland.". Volume 1, page 936 of the 1898 book “Historical Collections of Ohio” mentions that a Jacob Korn migrated to the Berlin area of Holmes County circa 1810-1811. Page 37 of the Korns book lists Jacob Korns in pre-1812 Somerset County tax assessment lists, indicates that Jacob Korn was not assessed for taxes in Somerset County in 1812, and does not list him in any Somerset County tax assessments after 1811.

Jacob Korn had the technical ability to build a sawmill
Information on Jacob Korn is given on page 78 of the book "Holmes County Historical Sketches" by the Holmes County Historical Society. Jacob Korn is described as being one of several German mechanics (as opposed to farmers) who came to the Berlin, Ohio area from Pennsylvania "immediately after" several other people who came in 1812. Jacob Korn is credited with having the first blacksmith shop in the area, and is described as being a "jack-of-all-trades", whose work was in high demand. For example, he is said to have made the metal parts for gristmills. This documented evidence of his technical abilities relating to mills supports the above-noted reports that Jacob Korn had an early sawmill in Southampton Township.

The original lumber was cut with a reciprocating saw, consistent with an early construction date
If the lumber used in the core, original construction of the house exhibited circular saw marks, it would not be reasonable to believe that the house was built during Michael Korn's lifetime. The first U.S. development of the circular saw is sometimes attributed to Massachusetts Shaker Tabitha Babbitt circa 1810/1813. Page 202 of the 1895 book "One Hundred Years of American Commerce" indicates that, although the circular saw was invented much earlier in Europe, the first importation and manufacture of circular saws in the United States seems to have occurred in 1814, and "until about 1830 the rotary saws did not find much favor", and by 1860 "the great mass of lumber was cut by them". The 1923 article "The Dating of Old Houses" by Henry C. Mercer suggests that the general introduction of the circular saw didn't occur in Pennsylvania until circa 1825-1835.

In the photographs of the core, original components of the house that show saw marks, the saw marks were clearly made by a reciprocating blade, and not by a circular saw. See the clear reciprocating saw marks on this photo, this photo and this photo, and the less-definitive reciprocating saw marks on this photo.

The presence of reciprocating saw marks on core, original components is not proof-positive of an early construction date, because reciprocating blade sawmills remained in use long after the general introduction of the circular saw.

Why is some of the timber hand-hewn?
In addition to the sawn lumber that was used in the house, some of the frame members are hand-hewn; for example see the photo of the sill plate (I don't know if sill plate is the correct term). The sill plates would been one of the first timber items that were installed when the house was constructed. Does the fact that at least one of them was hand-hewn possibly tell us something about the availability of sawmills at the very beginning of the construction project?

This corner post and sill plate of the structure appear to be sawn, judging from their generally smooth and square surfaces, yet also bear clear hew marks. I surmise that they were originally hand-hewn, but then were cleaned up by a sawmill. Since hand-hewing is so intensely laborious, this only makes sense if house construction began shortly before the availability of sawmills in the area. If a sawmill were available, there would be no logical reason to hand-hew a timber then send it to a sawmill to be cleaned up, because the sawmill doesn't require the shape of the timber to be roughed out before sawing. A sawmill just cuts off the bark coated "slabs", and quickly converts a log into a construction timber. The only way hewing marks on a sawn timber make sense is if a sawmill became available after the timber was already hewn, and one wanted to clean up the timbers so that they would have better squareness than a hewn timber. Since there were several sawmills nearby by the year 1805, one of them owned by Michael's brother Jacob Korn, the hewn corner posts and sill plate suggest that house construction began sometime before 1805.

The only other thing I can think of was that maybe the timbers were hewn than hand-planed smooth. Even if true, it doesn't say much for sawmill availability at the onset of construction, since other core lumber, including the floorboards that pass under load bearing walls (and therefore original), were clearly cut with a reciprocating saw. For other unusual findings on combined hewn-sawn timbers, and at least one hewn and then planed timber, follow the "corner post" link above. To see an example of an adz, one of the tools used to hand-hew timbers, click here. To see another tool that was used to form timbers, the broad axe, click here.

Two different types of lath and plaster were observed
Two different types of lath, and two different types of plaster appear in photographs of the house. In these enlargements of a 1998 photograph, triangular lath (possibly split) and sawn lath are both present. The triangular lath has a crude single layer plaster coating, and the sawn lath has a more modern double coating. The triangular lath appears to be installed in a faulty manner, and evidently most of it had to be replaced at a later date (circa 1883 or later). In this this enlargement of a 1999 photograph, more modern post circa 1825-1835 sawn lath is present, and retained with wire nails that were not used in the United States until circa 1883. This sawn lath, which appears to have been cut with a circular saw, is part of a remodeling job that occurred well after the house was built, evidently because of faulty installation of the original triangular lath, and the age and heavy weight of the original plaster.

Interior door seems to be consistent with pre-1835 style
An interior door appears to be a consistent with the pre-1835 style where the panel molding is planed into the framing; click here for photos and an explanation. A door that entered into the north-wing addition appears to have been made no earlier than 1883 based on molding that is attached to the framing with wire nails, click here for a photo and explanation.

The house has been re-sided, probably several times
Much of the siding on the rear of the house is seemingly crude overlapping clapboard, but several different types of siding are present. Some of the siding on the rear of the house would have been difficult to replace because of the addition that was attached over top of it.

The front of the house has three different types of siding on it. The lower part of the front of the house (below the porch roof ) has tongue and groove siding retained with post-circa-1883 round-headed wire nails. The siding on the front of the house, above the porch, is lapped siding. The siding on the front of the house, behind the porch roof in a difficult to re-side area, is un-lapped horizontal boards that must date back at least to the time the porch was attached.

The siding on the east end of the house is tongue and groove, at least on the lower part of the house that we have a clear photograph of. This lower east end siding may have been retained with the headless machine-cut nails that were recovered from that end of the house.

The presence of several different types and widths of siding, some of it with headless cut nails, and some of it with wire nails that were not available until circa 1883, show that the house exterior was remodeled at least once with at least a partial re-siding job, and probably several times.

The full length front porch isn't original
The 1949 photo of the house on the Michael Korns farm shows a full length, single decker, 5 bay porch that spanned the length of the house. Although the photo is fuzzy, the porch appears to lack the decorative scrollwork gingerbread that is common to porches that were built after powered machinery made such millwork inexpensive following the Civil War. (For an example of such scrollwork, on the nearby Daniel Korns, Jr. house, click here.)

I do not think that the front of the house originally had a full length porch, because on a front view of the house it can clearly be seen that the sill plate had no mortises to receive the tennons of supporting beams. Since the floor joists of the house were mortised into the sill plates, one would also expect the porch joists to be supported the same way if the porch was original to the house. Instead, the porch was supported in some unknown fashion. Also, the stone foundation support for the full length front porch is not integral with the foundation of the house, which also indicates that the porch was an add-on.

The siding behind the porch roof was likely replaced or at least removed and reattached at the time the porch was added, because the porch structure tied into to the vertical supporting structure of house through holes in the siding. They couldn't have attached the porch to the house structure in this manner if the siding was in place at the time (assuming the lath was also in place on the interior of the walls).

The wide siding boards behind the porch roof are unlikely to be original siding, because they are neither overlapped or tongue and groove, and would not be rain proof in the absence of the porch roof. The only logical reason for this style of board is that it didn't matter from a weatherproofing standpoint, because the porch roof protected that portion of the wall from rain.

Some Somerset County farmhouses had full-length porches early in the 19th century, but most came later, either as as an add-on, or as an integral feature of a new home [1]. By the middle of the ninteenth century, full-length porches were a popular item that was being added to older houses, or built integrally into new construction, all over the United States [1].

At the nearby farm of my grandfather Allen and grandmother Gladys Korns, I observed as a youth how such porches were used. Aside from being an architectural visual accent, they were used for everyday work. I recall that my grandmother used her porch for storage, and for work such as clothes drying. The area under the porch provided a sheltered area for storage, and occassionally for butchering. The 1949 photo of the house on the Michael Korns farm suggests that there was no access to the porch except from inside the house; this was also true of the porch on my grandparents' farm.

Headless machine-cut nails were used
The square nails that were used on the exterior of the house were headless, and match the description of the earliest machine-cut nails that became available during Michael Korn's lifetime, yet were used for a long time afterwards for certain applications. Such nails were formed from sheet metal by a simple shearing process. Machine-cut nails replaced much more expensive wrought nails circa 1790-1796, but the headless variety are of little value for dating because they were used for such a long time after their introduction. The same general type of headless machine-cut nails (perhaps a little larger) were driven into a basement beam to serve as hooks to hang things from.

The ground floor was made with tongue and groove boards
Not knowing much about old houses, I was surprised that the first story of the house had original tongue and groove flooring. I know that it is original flooring because it extended under the load bearing wall near the center of the house, and extended under the rock filler in the outer walls. While tongue and groove techniques have been used in some types of construction since ancient times, I am not sure how widely used it was used in the ninteenth century for flooring.

The 1865 book "Annual of Scientific Discovery" reports on the then-novel high speed tongue and groove machines, click here to see the page. What interests me most about this report is that it states "A man at a liberal estimate, could not put in a tongue and groove and plane more than four boards an hour…". Even if we cut this "liberal estimate" in half (i.e. 2 boards an hour), it still isn't unreasonable from a labor standpoint to think that a house of this size could have hand-planed tongue and groove boards during Michael Korn's lifetime. Click here for a general description of how hand-made tongue and groove flooring was prepared using special purpose hand planes, from the 1888 textbook "Bench Work in Wood".

Although not an expert, I cannot see why tongue and groove flooring, if hand planed, would preclude an pre-1824 construction date. I think the flooring was hand-planed. Click here to see if you think the flooring was hand or machine-grooved.

Michael would have needed a large house For all his possessions
One bit of circumstantial evidence that this may have indeed been the farmhouse of Michael Korns, Sr. is provided by the large estate that he left, as witnessed by the large public sale that was held after his death. This sale is recorded in Chapter II pages 48 to 56 of the book "Genealogy of Michael Korns, Sr.", which states that he was a wealthy man. One could easily believe that it would have taken a large home to house so many possessions, and conversely one could easily believe that an individual with so many possessions was relatively wealthy, and could have had a large house. By way of illustration, at the public sale, there were four beds sold, along with two stoves, two tables, a desk, a dresser, a clock, six chairs, a cupboard, a dough tray, a spinning whel and six chests (not all of the chests were necessarily from the house). Clearly, he had not been living in a small cabin.

Farm Description in the Korns Genealogy Book
This ancestral farm is pictured on page 30 of the 1949 book "The Genealogy of Michael Korns, Sr. of Somerset County Pennsylvania" by Charles Byron Korns, Sr., M.D.. The photo caption says it is the "Original Farm Home of Michael Korns, Sr.". The book also states: "The Michael Korns, Sr., farm in Southampton Township consisted of several hundred acres nestled in the foothills of the Allegheny Mountains. Much of the land has been cleared and in a good state of cultivation, indicative of hard and strenuous labor. This home was the pride of that community. The place was designated by the Court as a voting place in that District, and was formerly the seat of government in that township as it was here the elections were held, school boards held their meetings, tax collectors and township auditors met here. This home, once the pride of our ancestors, is now in a dilapidated state due to the ravages of time and carelessness and indifference of the various owners." The phrases "Original Farm Home of Michael Korns, Sr." and "This home, once the pride of our ancestors..." suggests that Dr. Korns believed that the house was used by his Korn ancestor Michael Korns.

The house was abandoned before many others in the area, suggesting an early construction date
The fact that the house was already "in a dilapidated state" by 1949 may lend some credence to the idea that it may have been one of the earlier local timber frame structures. A close look at the 1949 photo farm photo in Dr. Korns' book shows the house without paint, with some of the window paness broken out; i.e. apparently already uninhabited for quite some time. This abandonment is more significant when one considers that the house had at some time been remodeled inside (new plaster) and out (new siding), and the local population was generally frugal following the great depression. It is actually quite suprising that a house would be abandoned so soon after the great depression if it were in any way suitable as a residence. Other two story farmhouses in the area were certainly in use as residences at a much later date (some are still in use in 2007). For example, the lower porch on the south side of the nearby Daniel Korns, Jr. farmhouse was still reasonably sound in the 1960's when owned by Allen Korns, and the house was last used as a residence circa 2000, by which time it was dilapilated and both porches had collapsed.

The nearby Allen Korns farmhouse was adapted to electric in the 1939-1940 time-frame, according to Allen's daughter Estalene. As far back as I can remember, which is back to about 1957, the Allen Korns house also had already been converted to be heated with a coal-fired basement furnace. I have seen no evidence from personal observations or from study of photographs that indicates that the house on the Michael Korns farm had ever been updated to electric lighting or coal-fired heat. While certainly not proof-positive, the lack of such updates also suggests a potentially early abandonment date.

Cook Origins
The USGenWeb Archives biography "Cook Origins", by Richard Nellans, indicates that before 1830 Jacob Cook obtained a house and barn on 190 acres from the Korns family, and had a distillery in the barn. It was worded in a way that indicates that the house and barn were there at the time of the purchase--but I haven't seen any proof of this yet. The source of Nellan's information would be interesting to find; it may be the November, 1996 issue of "The Laurel Messenger". The article goes on to say that Jacob later sold the farm to his son Dennis, and references the farm as a "substantial property holding". This reference may include the additional property that Jacob Cook bought from the Michael Korns estate in 1830. I personally suspect that Dennis may have bought the farm from his father's estate, rather than a living Jacob selling it to Dennis.

Page 40 of Korns book indicates that Michael Korns sold a 189 acre tract to Jacob Cook by a deed dated 5/3/1817 and recorded 10/20/1817 in Somerset County deed book Volume 9 page 327; click here to see a copy of the deed, which actually referrs to 190 acres. It is possible, but not yet proven, that this was the sale of what we know know as the Blubaugh place. Jacob Cook did own the Blubaugh place, and during his life it did have a stone barn and two story frame house, as evidenced by this Nov. 14, 1864 petition regarding the estate of Jacob Cook. Dennis Cook lived there, and sold it the farm to Simon Blubaugh in 1880; click here to see a transcript of the deed. This 1880 sale is obviously why the place is still known locally as the Blubaugh place, even though other families have owned it since then.

After the death of Michael Korn, Jacob Cook bought the remainder of Michael Korn's real eastate. Page 42 of the Korns book states "Michael Korn, jr & Henry Hoyman, Administrators of Michael Korn, sr decd. conveyed two tracts of land to Jacob Cook by their deed dated 9/2/1830-recorded 9/2/1830 in Volume 12 page 120, for a consideration of $4888.15.", and also quotes a record from the 1830 session of the Somerset County Orphan's Court as follows "To the order of Court of April Term 1830 ordering the Sale of the real estate of the Said decd to be made on the first Monday of June 1830 The Administrators return that in pursuance of the same after due and publick notice they did expose the real estate of the said Michael Korns decd. to sale and sold the same to Jacob Cook as follows, viz The home place at $3503.01 three thousand five hundred and three dollars and one cent and the other tract called Glases (?) plan to the said Jacob Cook for $1385.14 one thousand three hundred and eighty-five dollars and fourteen cents that being in both cases the highest sum bidden and he the highest bidder".

Local opinion
Lester Korns (born in 1909), a past owner of the Michael Korns, Sr. farm who was independently familiar with local Korns history and traditions, also believed that the house on the Michael Korns, Senior farm once belonged to Michael Korns, Senior. I asked Lester a specific question on the subject, to see if he believed if the house was actually Michael Korn's house, and he replied affirmatively.

My personal conclusion
I have long refrained from encouraging people to believe that the old house on the Korns homestead was built during the lifetime of Michael Korn, and had documented it merely because it is an interesting early Somerset County house that no one else had studied. I now believe that it is at least possible that it was built during Michael Korn's lifetime, but it is not the home place referred to in his estate records. The key factors that lead me to believe that the house could have been built during his lifetime(subject to change with further research) are:

  • The hewn and sawn corner post, and the hewn sill-plate, suggesting that construction started before the availability of local sawmills, which were already available by 1805,
  • The faulty nature of the triangular lath, especially when combined with the weight of the thick original plaster, which explains why some of the conventional lath bears circular saw marks (plaster replacement was needed due to the faulty original plaster job),
  • The brown plaster sub-coat over original plaster on a rock-filled wall, confirming the interior re-plastering work that involved more modern lath,
  • The primative nature of the original plaster, being a single coat without a brown sub-layer,
  • The misc. evidence of early construction, even though not proof-positive (e.g. reciprocating saw marks, 1802-dated snow-birds, the "Mantion Place" description, primitive triangular lath, the fireplace, etc.),
  • The fact that Michael Korn's brother Jacob owned a local saw mill, and there were at least four sawmills in Southampton Township by 1805,
  • The lack of evidence of a later construction date, except in components that are clearly related to remodeling (e.g. different replacement siding on the front secured with round nails, lath retained with round nails and bearing circular saw marks),
  • The fact that it had evidently been remodeled inside and out (replacement siding, plaster and front porch, and the addition of the north wing) and yet was already uninhabited and in a dilapilated state, with the exterior paint weathered off by 1949, and
  • The house of Michael Korns was designated as an election site in 1804 by the State of Pennsylvania.

    This is my own non-expert opinion at the present time, subject to change with any new discoveries that may take place in the future. Other photographs of the house are known to exist, and will be tracked down and interpreted in due course. Each reader is encouraged to review the existing evidence, and draw their own conclusions.

    L. Dietle August 18, 2007 Updated November 28, 2008

    Long distance views of the Michael Korns farm
    View of Michael Korns farm from Daniel Korns farm
    View of the farm through the woods
    View of Michael Korns farm from cemetery
    A 1949 photo of the farm from Korns book (261 KB)

    Photos of the house on the Michael Korns family farm
    A 1998 frontal view of house before the collapse
    A 1998 perspective view of house before the collapse
    A 1999 frontal view of house after collapse
    Rear of house revealing old wing, early construction, later remodeling
    Rear of partially collapsed house
    1998 view of the house and barn
    An enlarged view of the house from the 1949 Korns book, showing porch

    House construction details
    Ceiling decoration, replacement tongue and groove siding
    Close-up of ceiling decoration
    Bars on the basement windows
    Central stairway
    Rough-hewn sill plate construction, interior of north wall
    Floor beams
    Close-up of rock-filled wall
    Brace close-up
    General house construction
    Front porch support
    Porch attachment
    Window frame and molding
    Hook for barring the door
    Snow Bird with 1802 patent date
    Peg used to join the beams
    Close-up of an interior door
    General view of siding on rear of house
    Basement doorway
    Probable reciprocating saw marks on wall structure board
    Reciprocating saw marks on original floorboard
    Fallen beam reveals mortise and tenon construction
    Closeup of right-hand doorway on front of house
    Window panes to the right of the front door
    Left-hand basement window, stone construction, saw marks
    Triangular lath, suggesting an early house construction date
    Sawn lath, suggesting a remodeling job
    Headless machine-cut nails recovered from the east end of the house
    Enlarged details of interior door, probably pre-1835
    Rear of house showing several different widths of clapboard
    Stacked boards in east wall, apparently for insulation
    First story door into the north wing addition
    Unusual stud construction suggests that the lath was replaced
    Annotated exterior photo of the south corner of the east wall
    Old bottle found hidden in a wall of the house

    Barn photos
    East end of barn, facing house
    End of barn facing away from house
    Ventilation slit in stone barn wall
    Close-up of the decorative portal on end wall of barn
    General view of interior of hay loft area of the barn
    West end of north barn wall

    Misc. farm photos
    View from near the farmhouse
    View from the stone barn
    Another view that is oriented generally north
    Close-up of the spring house
    The spring house, after restoration.
    Carved stone trough

    Aerial photos & maps of Michael Korns farm
    Aerial view of farm, 1 pixel = 1 meter
    Aerial view of farm, 1 pixel = 2 meters
    Aerial view of farm, 1 pixel = 4 meters
    Aerial view of farm, 1 pixel = 8 meters
    Aerial view of farm, 1 pixel = 16 meters
    1876 map showing proximity of Michael Korns, Sr. farm to Wellersburg
    1876 map showing proximity of Michael Korns, Sr. farm to Daniel Korns, Jr. farm
    1829 estate draught showing the property of the late Michael Korns, Sr.
    1939 aerial photo, with many boundaries of the 1829 properties still visible

    Return to the Korns family genealogy home page

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    References
    [1] "From Sugar Camps to Star Barns", Sally McMurry. Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001